Observatory diagrams

In the diagrams below you can check the instrumentation and the layout of all observatories from 2006 onwards. The zip files contains all diagrams from 2006 to 2018 (as PDFs) for Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden, respectively. Please be aware that there was no observatory in Rijpfjorden in 2008-2009 because of difficult ice conditions.

Kongsfjorden 2006-2019 (PDF-zip)

Rijpfjorden 2006-2019 (PDF-zip)

Jump to: 

Kongsfjorden 2010

Kongsfjorden 2017

Rijpfjorden 2006

Rijpfjorden 2018





Publications using observatory data

The following publications and projects make use of data collected by the KROP observatories:


Leopold, P., P. Renaud, W.G. Ambrose, J. Berge. Occurrence and distribution of blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) on Svalbard. Submitted

Meyer, K.S., A.K. Sweetman, P. Kuklinski, P. Leopold, D. Vogedes, J. Berge, C. Griffiths, C.M. Young, P.E. Renaud. 2017. Recruitment of benthic invertebrates in high Arctic fjords: relation to temperature, depth, and season. Limnology and Oceanography 62: 2732–2744 doi: 10.1002/lno.10602.

Darnis et al (2017). From polar night to midnight sun: Diel vertical migration, metabolism and biogeochemical role of zooplankton in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Limnology and Oceanography, doi: 10.1002/lno.10519

Grenvald, J. C. (2017). Understanding winter patterns of zooplankton Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Ph.D. thesis. University of Tromsø, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10037/10964

Vihtakari, M., W.G. Ambrose Jr, P.E. Renaud, W.L. Locke V, M.L Carroll, J. Berge, L.J. Clarke, F. Cottier, H. Hop.  2017. A key to the past? Element ratios as environmental proxies in two Arctic bivalves. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 465: 316–332 doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.10.020.

Grenvald, J., T.A. Callesen, M. Daase, L. Hobbs, G. Darnis, P.E. Renaud, F. Cottier, T.G. Nielsen, J. Berge. 2016. Plankton community composition and vertical migration during polar night in Kongsfjorden. Polar Biology 10: 1879-1895 doi: 10.1007/s00300-016-2015-x.

Vihtakari, M., P.E Renaud, L.J. Clarke, M.J. Whitehouse, H. Hop, M.L. Carroll, W.G. Ambrose Jr. 2016. Decoding the oxygen isotope signal for seasonal growth patterns in Arctic bivalves. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 446: 263-283. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.01.008

Meyer, K. S. 2016. Community assembly of benthic invertebrates on island-like marine hard substrata. Ph.D. thesis. University of Oregon.  https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/20686/Meyer_oregon_0171A_11678.pdf?sequence=1

Bandara K, Varpe J, Søreide JE, Wallenschus J, Berge J, Eiane K. (2016). Seasonal vertical strategies in a high Arctic coastal zooplankton community. Marine Ecol Prog. Series.

Last, K., Hobbs, L., Berge, J., Brierley, A., Cottier, F. (2016). Moonlight drives ocean scale mass vertical migration of zooplankton during the Arctic winter. Current Biology. 26, 1-8.  DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.038

Berge, J., M. Daase, P.E. Renaud, W.G. Ambrose, Jr., G. Darnis, K.S. Last, E. Leu, J. Cohen, G. Johnsen, M.A. Moline, F. Cottier, Ø. Varpe, N. Shunatova, P. Bałazy, N. Morata, J.-C. Massabuau, S. Falk-Petersen, K. Kosobokova, C.J.M. Hoppe, J.M. Węsławski, P. Kukliński, J. Legeżyńska, D. Nikishina, M. Cusa, M. Kędra, M. Włodarska-Kowalczuk, D. Vogedes, L. Camus, D. Tran, E. Michaud, T.M. Gabrielsen, A. Granovitch, A. Gonchar, R. Krapp, T.A. Callesen. 2015. Unexpected levels of biological activity during the polar night offers new perspectives on a warming Arctic. Current Biology 25: 1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.024

Vihtakari, M. (2015). Bivalves as indicators of environmental perturbations related to climate and ocean acidification. Ph.D. thesis. University of Tromsø, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10037/7152

Cohen J.H., J. Berge, M.A. Moline, A.J. Sørensen, K. Last, S. Falk-Petersen, P. Renaud, E. Leu, J. Grenvald, F. Cottier, H. Cronin, S. Menze, P. Norgren, Ø. Varpe, M. Daase, G. Darnis, G. Johnsen. 2015. Is ambient light during the high Arctic polar night sufficient to act as a visual cue for zooplankton? PLoS ONE 10(6): e0126247. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126247

Berge, J., Heggland, K, Lønne O.J., Cottier, F., Hop, H., Gabrielsen, G.W., Nøttestasd, L., Misund O.A. (2015). First records of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) from the Svalbard archipelago, Norway, with possible explanations for the extension of its distribution.  Arctic 68 (1):1-8.

Berge, J., Cottier, F., Varpe, Ø., Renaud, P.E., Falk-Petersen S., Kwasniewski S., Griffiths C., Søreide, J., Johnsen G, Aubert A., Bjærke O., Hovinen J., Jung-Madsen S., Tveit M., Majaneva S. 2014. Arctic complexity:  a case study on diel vertical migration of zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 36: 1279-1297 doi:10.1093/plankt/fbu059

Ambrose, W.G. Jr., P.E. Renaud, W.L. Locke, F. Cottier, J. Berge, M. Carroll, B. Levin, S. Ryan. 2012. Growth line deposition and variability in growth of two circumpolar bivalves (Serripes groenlandicus and Clinocardium ciliatum). Polar Biology 35: 345-354. doi: 10.1007/s00300-011-1080-4

Hobbs, L. (2016). Winter vertical migration of Arctic zooplankton. PhD thesis. Unversity of Aberdeen. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.704537

Nahrgang, J., Varpe, Ø., Korshunova, E., Murzina, S., Hallanger, I. G., Vieweg, I., & Berge, J. (2014). Gender Specific Reproductive Strategies of an Arctic Key Species (Boreogadus saida) and Implications of Climate Change. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e98452. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098452.s008

Vogedes, D. (2014). Calanus spp. in the Arctic ecosystem - a story on predation, distribution and methodology. Ph.D. thesis. University of Tromsø, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10037/6807

Daase, M., S. Falk-Petersen, Ø. Varpe, G. Darnis, J.E. Søreide, A. Wold, E. Leu, J. Berge, B. Philippe, L. Fortier (2013). Timing of reproductive events in the marine copepod Calanus glacialis: a pan-Arctic perspective. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70(6): 1-14.

Weydmann, A., J.E. Soreide, S. Kwasniewski, E. Leu, S. Falk-Petersen, J. Berge (2013). Ice-related seasonality in zooplankton community composition in a high Arctic fjord.
Journal of Plankton Research 2013; doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbt031

Wallace, M.I., Cottier, F.R., Berge, J., Tarling, G.A. & Griffiths, C. 2010. Comparison of zooplankton vertical migration in an ice-free and a seasonally ice covered Arctic fjord: an insight into the influence of sea ice cover on zooplankton behaviour. Limnology and Oceanography 55(2):831-845.

Søreide, J.E., Leu, E., Berge, J., Graeve, M. & Falk-Petersen, S. 2010. Timing of blooms, algal food quality and Calanus glacialis reproduction and growth in a changing Arctic. Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02175.x

Leu, E., Soreide, J. E., Hessen, D. O., Falk-Petersen, S., & Berge, J. (2011). Consequences of changing sea-ice cover for primary and secondary producers in the European Arctic shelf seas: Timing, quantity, and quality. Progress In Oceanography, 90, 18–32. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2011.02.004

Rabindranath, A., Daase, M., Falk-Petersen, S., Wold, A., Wallace, M. I., Berge, J., & Brierley, A. S. (2011). Seasonal and diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the High Arctic during the autumn midnight sun of 2008. Marine Biodiversity, 41, 365–382.




(more to follow)


2013 mooring campaign - success!

Some days ago the last of the 4 Svalbard year-round moorings, deployed in Rijpfjorden, was successfully retrieved during a UNIS cruise. All instruments were happy, and even the blue mussles, deployed in a small cage, were still alive. So, good news for the entire mooring campaign. All moorings are serviced and set out again for another year of data aquisition. You can find a detailed setup under the Mooring setup link.


Kongsfjorden #1:

Purpose: 12 month standard observatory

Instrumentation: Exactly the same as 2012-13 12 month deployment (2x ADCP + 2x Sed Trap)

Set-up: Same as 2012-13 12 month deployment

Deployment: AB321 Sept/Oct 2013

Recovery: AB202 2014


Rijpfjorden #1:

Purpose: 12 month standard observatory

Instrumentation:  Same as the 2012-13 12 month deployment (2x ADCP but only one sediment trap probably at 100m?)

Set-up: Same as 2012-13 12 month deployment

Deployment: AB321 Sept/Oct 2013

Recovery: AB202 2014 (perhaps?)


Billefjorden #1:

No deployment this year


Isfjorden #1:

Purpose: 1 month deployment to support lunar experiment with period of NEW and FULL moon

Instrumentation: 2x ADCP if possible covering surface to as deep as possible; 1 x Sedtrap (probably at 40-50 m?), T&S as available

Set-up: ADCPs to ping asynchronously with set up similar to 36 hour deployments to start 1 Dec and end 31 Dec.  Ping rate such that battery is exhausted.  Sed trap bottle timing being decided by Kim.  Will pass this ASAP.

Deployment: AB321 Sept/Oct 2013

Recovery: Helmer Hansen in January.


Kongsfjorden #2:

Purpose: 4 day deployment to support CIRCA sampling in January 2014 – this will be the Isfjorden #1 mooring turned around.

Instrumentation: 2x ADCP covering surface to as deep as possible; 1 x Sedtrap (probably at 40-50 m?), T&S as available

Set-up: ADCPs to ping asynchronously with set up similar to 36 hour deployments to reveal any complex patterns.  Ping rate as fast as possible.  Sed trap preset in Tromsø by CRG after AB321 with bottle timings to be decided by JB/KL/FC/CG.

Deployment: Helmer Hansen at start of CIRCA

Recovery: Helmer Hansen before departure from KF and redeployed as Kongsfjorden #3


Kongsfjorden #3:

Purpose: 3 month deployment to provide high resolution spring data set spanning 24 hr dark to 24 hr light – this will be the Kongsfjorden #2 mooring turned around.

Instrumentation: 2x ADCP covering surface to as deep as possible; 1 x Sedtrap (Isfjorden #1 Sedtrap reloaded and reprogrammed), T&S as available

Set-up: ADCPs to ping asynchronously with ping rate as high as possible and battery exhausted by 30 April 2014 to reveal complex patterns.  Sed trap set up on Helmer Hansen during Jan 2014 with bottle timings to be decided by JB/KL/FC

Deployment: Helmer Hansen before departure from KF in January

Recovery: AB202 in Aug/Sept 2014

Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden Observatory Programme (KROP)

The collection of background oceanographic data over a longer time is of great importance. Time series stations in the fjords allow us to track the changes in the environment and the separate unique events from permanent changes.

Under the lead of Jørgen Berge (UiT/UNIS) and Finlo Cottier (SAMS), we are maintaining two long-term observatories. One is located in Rijpjorden (established in 2006 by UNIS & SAMS), the other one in Kongsfjorden (established 2002 by SAMS). The observatories consist of a set of standard instruments which are deployed every year (CTDs, ADCPs, sediment traps), as well as “guest instrumentation”, which we add upon request by collaborating researchers (e. g. AURAL hydrophones (NPI), RAS autonomous water samplers (FAABulous/AWI/APN), settlement plates (APN) and more).  For the instrumentation setup please refer to the mooring diagrams.

All collected data will be made freely available online soon. We are currently working with the IT department at UiT to change the format all historic data to NetCDF and will publish it continuously. Using the NetCDF format will allow for users to create and download their own datasets online, using only the variables they are interested in. In the meantime, please contact Jørgen Berge if you wish to access and use data from the observatories.

The observatories are registered in the Research in Svalbard database.

Kongsfjorden: RIS 11107

Rijpfjorden: RIS 11106

You might also want to check out the list of publications (side menu) which have made use of the observatory data so far.

Mare upcoming events

No events found

The Mare Incognitum projects are members of the ARCTOS research network

The Mare Incognitum web pages are maintained by Marine Night technician Daniel Vogedes, UiT.

The content is provided by the projects, for comments please check the project pages and contact the project leader.