Back in town – the end of the Blog

The CLEOPATRA II field campaign has returned home safe, after a very successful time in Rijpfjorden. Two helicopter flights brought as back as scheduled, half of the team returning at 12:00 (with a lot of cargo) and the other half at 15:00 on Tuesday. After a looong shower and changing to new clothes, we started unpacking and cleaning all the equipment. And of course, had a delicious dinner and a couple of beers out in town.

This marks the end of our campaign blog. Eventually we will replace the low-res pictures we sent by satellite phone with high-res versions and place a slide show on top of the page, but there will be no more new blog entries.

CLEOPATRA II as a project will of course continue, and for updates regarding the project, preliminary results and future plans, please refer to the official CLEOPATRA II homepage: http://www.mare-incognitum.no/index.php/cleopatra-ii – this page is under construction right now, but will hopefully contain more information soon.

Thank you for following our blog! We hope you had a good time here and please do not hesitate to take contact if you have any questions.

 

Our home for 2 weeks - soon empty in the wilderness again

Our home for 2 weeks – soon empty in the wilderness again

Quite some cargo - up to the roof - on the helicopter made sitting about as comfortable as on a low-fare airline

Quite some cargo – up to the roof – on the helicopter made sitting about as comfortable as on a low-fare airline

Never mind the lack of space, we were looking forward to a shower and some non-dried food

Never mind the lack of space, we were looking forward to a shower and some non-dried food

And here we are - back at UNIS, after a long shower and with new clothes, waiting for the second flight to land

And here we are – back at UNIS, after a long shower and with new clothes, waiting for the second flight to land

 

The final day in Camp Cleo II – cleaning up the mess

As you can imagine, the last day was entirely dedicated to cleaning up 14 days of hard scientific camp life. Taking down the lab went – maybe not too surprising – about 10 times faster than setting it up. We decided to bend the “do not leave any traces behind” rule a bit and did not shuffle the 10 t snow which we removed back in place. Guess Sysselmannen will be fine with that.

Malin documented every single piece of equipment with a picture before packing it down, Einar did the scooter stunt of the year, reversing the scooter back in the box, with 1 cm clearance and without chopping of his head, Miriam was extremely excited about finally shuffling snow again, Daniel collected all his cables and electronics, Janne tried to keep control, keep us all busy and tried to eat up all of the remaining chocolate and Josef took care of the LiCores, after a not so successful final light transect in the morning.

Now everything is ready for the pickup tomorrow and we celebrated with yet another fantastic sauna – to be the first field team ever to get back to town after two weeks in the field smelling fresh like Svalbard spring flowers. Now there will be a last extraordinary dinner prepared by Einar – Salmon with vegetables – and Malin – cake – and tomorrow we will be (weather depending) back in town for a beer or two and a looong shower!

(DV)

Final sampling day – Cleo II goes music [updated 13 may 2013]

Janne Søreide, our project leader and camp master, is a member of the ARCTOS network (www.arctosresearch.net), which has a tradition of bringing artists and scientists together in the PolArt project. Inspired by this, another ARCTOS member, Tobias Tamelander, approached the Cleopatra 2 field team with the unusual request to produce an introduction to a music video. Cleo 2 is of course devoted to science, but today, finally, after the end of the sampling, Malin, Janne and Daniel sacrificed their coffee break to produce a soon-to-famous intro to a music video of the soon-to-be-famous band French For Cartridge (www.frenchforcartridge.com). So, at some point after our return, you will probably meet us in a very unusual context. We will let you know when “Cleo 2 goes Antarctica (in Rijpfjorden)” goes viral!

UPDATE 13 May 2013:

Our artistic music video introduction, together with the actual video by French for Cartridge are now online.

http://youtu.be/ekSaoVy3Md0&rel=0&w=320

Direct YouTube link: http://youtu.be/ekSaoVy3Md0

On the science part of life, both team phytoplankton and team zooplankton had the last sampling of this campaign. Several more ice cores, more horizontal under-ice nets, light and CTDs were taken today – all without any hassle. We also managed to give the Lønne-pump a long sampling run, which is probably what it needs. 2h of pumping water from right beneath the ice through a 60 um mesh container produced a beautiful sample of ice alga clogging the net, and plenty of copepods. So, the future of zooplankton and phytoplankton sampling is not dragging endless numbers of nets through the ocean. Just deploy a couple of pumps, have a looong coffee break or watch a good movie, drag them out again, and ready is your sample. Life can be so easy if you are smart!

The end of the sampling means the beginning of the packing down marathon. ROVi, some nets and some other stuff is already boxed up and ready to for the ride home, but the big de-mobilization of camp Cleo 2 will start tomorrow. Therefore, time for the second last night in Bjørnehiet and Sukkerbiten. Good night civilisation! See you soon!

(DV)

Todays special: A real science blog! 14 days in the field summarized

Spring arrives Rijpfjorden! When we sampled first time 4 May the sea was still in a «frozen mode». Sea water temperatures around the freezing point (-1.8 °C) with beautiful ice lamellas on the bottom of the sea ice covered by a ~1 cm thick carpet of brownish ice algae. Sea ice was still forming and nice stalactites due to sea ice formation and thus brine rejection was seen from the underwater filming with the ROV. Dominating ice algae were the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida which is normally the most numerous species to be found in first year sea ice around Svalbard and elsewhere in the Arctic (see picture).
The zooplankton community in Rijpfjorden in May 2013 consists mainly of the large Calanoid copepod Calanus glacialis. Now impressive abundances of C. glacialis females exist just under the sea ice. They have nice green guts – taking advantage of ice algae washed out from the sea ice due to tidal currents. The number of females with green guts has increased steadily from the beginning to mid-May hand in hand with the egg production rates. 6 of May roughly half of the inspected females had green guts while in mid-May almost all (80%) have green guts. The egg production rate started low (mean 3.5 eggs per female per day) but is increasing and has almost tripled (11 eggs per female per day) today with egg clutch sizes of up to 78 eggs per female. In ice free Kongsfjorden maximum egg production rates (65 eggs per female per day) were reached in early May this year when the phytoplankton bloom was peaking. Similar rates will soon occur in Rijpfjorden where the production has been a bit delayed due to algal food limitation. Still the ice algae are holding their grip to the bottom of the sea ice in Rijpfjorden, but as soon as the sea temperatures rise a bit more they will be slugged off and Calanus glacialis will get access to more food. In the sea ice covered Billefjorden close to Longyearbyen, the C. glacialis egg production rates this year have increased steadily from the sea ice algae started to grow in early April (one month earlier than in Rijpfjorden!) reaching maximum egg production rates these days (66 eggs per female per day).

(JS)

99 colorful balloons – 10. May 2013

Happy Birthday to Janne!

This day started quite early at about 3 am in the morning when Janne`s first birthday visitor stepped into the tripwire and woke us up. Our big yellow-whitish “guest” was very polite waiting at the entrance of our camp-fence area. He (Miriam calls him Felix) couldn`t be bothered to get in since we let him nicely know that we don`t like uninvited birthday guests and Felix left in a smooth walk away to the next party…
When we finally got up later in the morning we surprised Janne with a Bjørnehiet full of colorful balloons and a in-a-waterbath-cabin-baked chocolate cake by Malin. The weather was also beautiful and we had an amazing day here in 80 degrees North. The sauna was the first time in use and believe it or not it is the best sauna in whole Svalbard (whole Nord-Austlandet for sure!) and we felt for the first time washed and fresh again. And as it was not enough of an amazing day, Einar used his magic hands to delight us with a splendid steak – potato – vegetable dinner. The best day ever ended then finally with a game of “Cleopatra 2 memory” (not for sale yet, only special edition 2013 for Janne) and we all went to sleep in a good mood.

(MM)

Daily life in Camp Cleo2 – an extraordinary blog

Today we present you: An ordinary day in Camp Cleo2.

Daily life in Camp Cleo2 usually starts around 8 am when the females in Sukkerbiten get a radio call by Daniel in Bjørnehiet to tell them breakfast is ready. The females are normally not awake yet…especially one certain one (but I was asked by Malin not to mention names here…). Then males and females have breakfast together in Bjørnehiet, porridge yammy…and also still polarbrød and hardbread with a variety of spread. After breakfast camp inhabitants are queuing for the superultra plus plastic toilette and making their morning washing, such as Janne and Malin happily brushing teeth together… Once in a while some inhabitants are trying to wash even more than the teeth and this turned at least in Miriam`s case out to get back to the 80ies, when she tried to wash her hair with dry-shampoo (not recommendable!).
Depending on the sampling plan different people heading out for sampling everyday, most often Janne and her zooplankton gang. When it is a long day at the R3 station, the group has dry-tech lunch directly on the sea ice, if not we all have lunch break in Bjørnehiet around 1ish. When there is no field party, the inhabitants follow their other usual duties such as: Miriam filters water (there is always something to filter…), Einar works on the sauna or different other tricky stuff, Malin picks Calanus females, Janne counts Calanus eggs, Jozef fights with the Li-Corer or identifies icealgae and Daniel…well besides lying lazy around on the scooter, he is taking care of ROVi, the blog and different other technical issues. About 8 pm somebody is taking the dry-tech wishes for dinner (the variety of dry-tech decreased, we run for instance out of Chili con Carne and the largest amounts left are Storfegryte, Lapskaus and Steinbitgryte) and makes the food ready. Meaning the one in charge boils water, fills up 6 bags of dry-tech, mixes them a little, closes them again and keeps them staying for about 10 minutes before person in charge calls for dinner in Bjørnehiet. After dinner Daniel is asking his usual question “Who is writing today`s blog?” and everybody keeps in silence… Sometimes there is still need to get some work done in the labtent ehm I meant the Temple of knowledge after dinner time before the clock says again “Good night males and females in Camp Cleo2”!

(MM)

Another day, another sampling

Today was a rather relaxed day. And a sunny day. Very sunny indeed. Janne, Josef and Daniel went out to the field site for some light measurements at local sun-noon (which in our calculation is around 12:40 Norwegian time). While preparing for another 48h deployment of the sediment traps, we got a curious furry yellow visitor. As it was approaching in a rather good speed, there was no time to get all the gear on the sledges again, so we decided on option B: make it go away. A noisy two-stroke Viking scooter engine and two flares did the trick. Good old Vikings, one more time. Mr (or Mrs., it did not get close enough to tell the difference) Bear did not lose interest, but was obviously not very fund of these noises, disturbing the perfect silence of sunny afternoon on the ice. It decided to watch these funny creatures, that so obviously not were seals, even though they were hanging around something that looked like a gigantic seal breathing hole, from a safe distance. Pleased by this lack of interest in a closer inspection of us seal-lookalike-humans, we continued to deploy the sediment traps – this time with a radically simplified rope construction. It went well. Sort of. Minor problems, but nothing compared to our previous rope experiences.
On the way back to camp (for once we were an hour early instead of several hours late) we spotted another bear, some 2-3 km from camp.
In the meantime, the camp team had been busy with their projects. Miriam had been filtrating half of the fjord, while Malin counted countless Calanus and (in all secrecy) baked a cake for the big tomorrow (why? What for? Well, you’ll have to come back tomorrow to find out). Einar continued in his endless amazing efforts to improve the camp by fixing bits and pieces everywhere, the most remarkable one to install the old cabin oven and two benches in the scooter garage, now turning into the worlds northernmost sauna. By the end of the day, it had reached an amazing 20 C, which was only about 15 C less than in Sukkerbiten and 10 less than in Bjørnehiet. More improvements are scheduled for tomorrow. Under Einars dedicated craftsmanship, the camp is more and more turning into something that could be a permanent settlement. In CLEOPATRA III we plan to bring a dishwasher, washing machine, microwave and a shower.
A looong afternoon coffee break in our market place/parking lot was used for sun bathing and group pictures, and later on we all continued in camp – counting, filtrating, measuring, fixing, mailing, baking, you name it…
After the dinner work in the lab tent continued with filtration and counting of Calanus female eggs after the end of the incubation experiment. Soon Janne will post the first really scientific blog entry with results of the pan-Svalbardic Calanus egg production experiment, coordinated from the remote Rijpfjorden research office, thanks to our good friends at Iridium satellite communication services.
Good news: The GoPro camera functions even after taking a bath in salt water! Apparently the battery pack extension collected all the water, so the camera stayed mostly dry. It is working fine again now.
For the technology nerds: We have swapped the VHF radios for satellite phones – for some funny reason it is absolutely impossible to communicate over more than 2 km distance with VHFs here, so camp-to-field communication is done by phone. Strange to be at the end of the world and still have phones ringing and text messages coming in every now and then.
Now it is bed time. 3 more days, then we will start de-mobilisation of the camp again. Time flies…

The successful ropes-everywhere-and-ROV-in-between-day

Today, among other things, we (field party: Janne, Malin, Daniel) retrieved the sediment traps. Which was interesting. Very interesting. Almost more interesting than to deploy them. A quick inspection by the ROV (now functioning perfectly fine, though 30 m amputated) confirmed the depth (8 and 14 m) and position (perfectly located under the ice). The first retrieval try, with brutal scooter force, ended with the realization that it was not possible to lift up an entire ice floe with a scooter, while standing on exactly that floe. Some adjustments later, after contemplating how a looping rope under the ice actually functions, we tried again. This time only pulling one side of the loop, not both at the same time. Miraculously, the sediment traps came in sight, now located right under the hole. While Janne was working out another sophisticated pulling system, Daniel decided to take some initiative and pulled the whole construction out by hand. Quite excited, Janne informed the other two about plenty of shit particles in the traps. In other words: A real success!
Second on the agenda was horizontal net tows under the ice. While Malin and Janne again struggled with the sophisticated rope construction, Daniel escaped that mentally challenging task by getting the ROV ready to film the net tows. First off was the 63 um net, which ended up in serious entanglement all but one time. It turned out to be very suitable as a buoyancy device for divers, as it would hand under the ice like a balloon. Much to our surprise, the WP2-200 um worked like a charm. Several net hauls in 2-4 m under the ice later, Janne’s excitement reached new heights. A thick Calanus soup in the sampling jars witnessed of a very successful horizontal sampling.
Another quick ROV mission connected hole 2 to the more untouched hole 3 (for hole-terminology see the disaster blog from some days ago) for a horizontal phytoplankton net tow to satisfy the filtration camp team.
Eventually the Lønne-suction-pump was deployed for the first time in history. Turned out that electrician geniuses Janne and Daniel had connected all red and blue cables correctly, and without blowing the fuse, the pump worked fine for 10 minutes in 1 m depth, collecting about 10 Calanus in total. Successes everywhere! Oh what a wonderful day!
The base time had a filtration marathon: 9 sea ice cores were eventually melted and went through the filtration unit. As filtration for particulate organic carbon does not work very well in a tent with smoky multifuel oven running on jet fuel, the oven was switched off for a while and Einar used the opportunity to clean it. In addition he continued on the biggest project so far: The construction of a real SAUNA inside one of our scooter garages.

More about this project, and sampling and camp life tomorrow.

Polar bear count: 0, other wildlife: 3 kittywake, 4 snowbunting, 2 ivory gull. Spring is coming to town!

PS: Some clarifications:
We did not loose any equipment (at least nothing of any particular value)… yet. We did not destroy too much equipment either, only minor value.
We do write a blog every day, but usually in the evening, thus it is not published before evening next day.
We do serious research, although it might not always sound like that. For serious reading, read the 10 scientific papers to be published soon.

Bergfest!

Tuesday May 7 – that means we are half way through our field campaign. Time for Bergfest! The whole team stayed in camp in morning, preparing different sets of field gear, taking pictures of Calanus females and cleaning up the camp. A little refresher of the shooting skills was also on the agenda. Instead of a big party in the evening, we had another special meal for lunch: no DryTech, but as a starter a pea soup and then plenty of pancakes with loads of bacon, jam, not white white cheese, brunost, sugar and other good stuff. Namm!
After lunch, a change of field teams: Miriam, Josef and Einar went out on a transect across the fjord, taking ice cores (6 stations, 3 replicates) for ice algae, measuring ice thickness, snow depth and water properties at all stations. Janne, Malin and Daniel stayed in camp, where Janne and Malin continued to work with Calanus, while Daniel was busy to get the underwater suction pump to work, getting yesterdays blog ready and up in the air – and enjoying some quiet minutes in silence in the sun, when the wind suddenly died down entirely for a short time.
The field team came back late (around 21:00) and after another round of our favourite evening game (pick a random DryTech) we decided to take an early evening – 23:45 and everyone went into their sleeping bags.

Tomorrow on the agenda: ROVi deployment to get a status on the sediment traps, recovery of traps, horizontal plankton net tow, suction pump sampling in the field and a long filtration session in the lab tent. Rather catch some sleep now!

One of those days…

It began promising. The weather forecast was quite good, although whiteout in the beginning, it should turn sunny and stay rather calm. Early birds as we are, we left already after lunch for the field site. We, in this case, were Janne, Malin, Josef, Daniel and ROVi. That day (Wednesday May 07) an ROV transect under the ice, horizontal plankton net tows and deployment of sediment traps were on the agenda. A second hole for ROV to be recovered through was quickly made, and all systems worked fine. On the way from hole 1 to 2 we got some nice video of a busy under-ice fauna: Lots of copepods and other zooplankton having a great time just below the under-ice surface. At whole 2, the ROV was just out of reach for Janne’s arm, when the system suddenly failed. Manually we pulled it back on its tether line. Back at start, it seemed fine. On the second try, the same result, system failure just an arms length away from recovery. This time, it would not respond back at base either. A quick failure survey revealed that the main cable was twisted and broken. It would run fine on the 30 m extension though – unfortunately that meant we had to make another hole 30 m away from start, not 50 as planned. While Janne, Malin and Josef made another hole, Daniel realized the second failure of the day. The “GoPro” camera, mounted on the ROV to get some HD video, had drowned. A quick rescue operation got the memory card in a warm pocket (turned out later that it was fine!), but the camera is dead, dead, dead.
Reaching from hole 1 to newly made hole 3 was done in a minute or so (as it should be), and Janne began to deploy to here well thought-through horizontal under-ice plankton sampling construction, which Malin and Josef still have not understood (Daniel faded out before even trying to understand what is going on). As it had become pretty late already, we decided to postpone horizontal sampling and only deploy the sediment traps. Easier said than done, as it turned out that Janne lost control over the mechanisms of her construction. A lot of swearing and shouting later, all sediment traps eventually disappeared under the ice, where they still are. Another ROV deployment will hopefully give some information on the actually position of these traps, which might be far from different from the originally planned one.
On the bright side: the sun came out and we had a beautiful evening in the midnight sun. And we had a furry white visitor: a polar fox passing our camp in the morning.

(DV, MD)

The everyone-is-too-busy-to-write-blog-day

Sunday is a relaxing day, also in Rijpfjorden. Our generous field marshall gave us an extra hour of sleep, so today we had breakfast as late as 09:00 *! In addition to regular instant coffee, Daniel served some fresh espresso, and the porridge ration was XXL. Some sampling equipment maintenance late morning, and off we (Janne, Malin and Daniel) went to our site for some zooplankton community sampling, while Miriam, Josef and Einar stayed behind in the camp, busy with their own projects.
Sampling went smooth and many hundred copepods lost their lives in our sampling jars.
On the way home we spotted a polar bear in the far distance, but it was some 5 km away from camp, and winds were in our favor – so far it did not show up here. Returning to base on time, we were surprised by an excellent dinner prepared by Einar – the first day without DryTech for most of us. Sweet!

At the moment (midnight) Malin is checking the vital state of the copepods that are still alive, while Janne is removing the females from their kids before they can eat them. More details from the Calanus world tomorrow. Sleeping time for the secretary now. Goodnight, and welcome to another exciting day at Rijpforden tomorrow. If weather permits, tomorrow will be ROV and horizontal under ice sampling day.

And this time some scientific results:
If you look at our beautiful CTD plot, you will notice that it is still winter in Rijpfjorden. No stratification, temperature close to freezing point and as yesterdays picture shows, ice algae are doing very well.

* Footnote: In contrast to Bjørnehiet residents, Sukkerbiten residents got up half an hour earlier than usually because Miriam heard suspicious noises and informed the rest of the women team about them.

(DV)

5 May, 2013 21:48

Finally: the big day. We were dying of curiosity: what is the actual situation in Rijpfjorden? How thick is the ice? How much snow is on the ice? Will there be any ice algae? Is Calanus producing eggs? Today we would get the answers. We went out to our sample station, about 10 km north from our camp. Here a physical and biological observatory (a so called mooring) is placed in the water column measuring temperature, salinity, fluorescence, current speed, sedimentation and particle movement (ADCP) all year round. The first thing we did was to drill a hole in the ice. A 15-25 cm layer of snow covered the ice. The ice was very soft, and indication that spring is in the air, and about 70 cm thick. And to our great joy a layer of ice-algae was growing at the under ice surface! So we are here at the exact right time of the year! We took a number of ice cores and water samples from different depth. These samples will be analysed for chlorophyll and nutrient concentration as well as DNA and taxonomic composition. Back in camp Jozef and Miriam were busy filtering the water. Meanwhile the rest of us went back to take some zooplankton nets to have a look at Calanus. The females look happy and have green guts, an indication that they are feeding, and we incubated 30 of them to measure egg production. So tomorrow we will find out if they are producing eggs.

(MD, JES)

Good evening South!

Day 3 in Rijpfjorden just ended with lovely dry-tech dinner freshly made by Daniel Ludwig the First himself. What happened today? After digging million and million tons of snow yesterday…(commentary from the author: I know it was mentioned already yesterday but I just wanted to make sure that you readers truly understand the amount of tons and tons we dug [dogged]!), a hole was free to set up the military lab tent. Military lab tent constructions are not the very best to give to scientists to set up, but good that we have Einar, he figured out what was to do in half of the time as Jozef and Janne. Well, now the lab tent is standing and awesome tables (working bench “Janne” you can see on the picture) were built for filtration, technique stuff and zooplankton equipment. Everything is ready for sampling tomorrow!

Polar bear sights: none…but it was foggy most of the day
Muscles aching: still countless …
Near accidents happening: troubles with super glue and slippery labfloors

(MM)

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Snow shoveling day (not much else happened)

Today we removed snow. A lot of snow.
After a late breakfast (at least for some people late- turns out that Janne can actually sleep in…) we started to remove the snow next to the container to make place for the lab tent.
It was a lot of snow. It took all day. We also dogged out the scooter sledges and Einar serviced both scooters which was very good because this helped us to transport all the snow down to the sea. In the time between digging snow Daniel got the Iridium-internet to work- eventually.
At the end of a whole day of shoveling snow a hot bag of dry-tech tastes surprisingly good. While digesting our food we suddenly heard a bang which set everyone into action except for Malin and Daniel who did not take this noise seriously. Turned out a polar bear had stumbled over our trip wire that we set up around the camp. By the time we figured that out the bear was already running away. Apparently he found the sound of the explosive more alarming than Malin and Daniel.
Daily sum up: Cubic meters of snow removed: ca. 48; Polar bears approaching camp: 1. Aching muscles: Countless.

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Departure – arrival – digging

Dear blog readers,
what yesterday seemed rather unlikely has come true: CLEOPATRA II arrived in Bjørnehiet, Rijpfjorden! In two flights, one at 09:00 and the second at 13:00, we were transported out by helicopter – and to our surprise together with all our luggage. Some modifications in the helicopter layout (read: removal of seats) and the fact that there are several hundred litres of heli fuel stored here made this possible.
Everything was well in the camp – no polar bear had destroyed the cabin, container or weather station. The first group started digging out the entrance to Bjørnehiet (the cabin) and “Sukkerbiten” (the portable cardboard housing box), which turned out to be an excellent replacement for some hour in the gym. Large amounts of snow, hard as concrete, gave us a really good exercise.
The rest of the day went for digging, digging, digging and general setting up the camp. Thanks to miracle-mechanic Einar, both Viking 540 two-stroke scooters started – after being stored away for 5 years in a container, alone in the wild, without any tender loving care. Impressive reliable stuff these things that look like a piece of junk.
It has been a long day, therefore only a short blog entry before collapsing into a coma. Since the battery in the worlds northernmost phonebooth ran empty, this entry will not be published before tomorrow (Thursday), but it will probably not the last time an entry is not submitted in time. Sorry for that, dear reader, we do our best to keep you entertained. Here are some pictures from the trip and our first day (all pictures are low quality because of limited bandwith – we will replace them once we are back).

(DV)

Last preparations

Tomorrow we will fly out to Rijpfjorden- if the weather allows (doesn’t look too promising right now, but you never know).

The last two days we have been busy with the last preparations: buying food for 6 people for 14 days (keeping in mind the weight and space limitations of the helicopter), fixing equipment and going through safety routines.

Since we will be out there in polar bear land we have to be prepared for eventual encounters. First rule is of course: try to avoid any encounters! However, in order to be prepared for all possible scenarios we also took a training round on the rifle range yesterday and practice shooting with rifles and flare guns, which we usually bring out in the field on Svalbard. In addition we tried out the shot gun loaded with rubber ball ammunition, which may come in handy to scare bears away that decide to pay our camp a visit.

IMG_5765b

On the rifle range

 

IMG_5769b

Daniel and Janne in deep discussion on their aiming accuracies

IMG_5776b

The flare gun gives a loud “bang”

IMG_5778b

Learning how to load the shot gun

 

All in all we are prepared, everything’s packed up and we’re ready to go. Let’s hope for good flying weather tomorrow 🙂

MD

 

 

Where, why, who?

Now that we have tested this blog for a few days it is time to tell you what this blog is actually all about. So this will be a rather lengthy blog entry providing some background information.

In the next weeks we will blog about our field campaign in the high Arctic fjord Rijpfjorden.  This field campagain is part of the project “CLimate Effects On PlAnktonic food quality and trophic TRAnsfer in the Arctic marginal ice zone”, or short CLEOPATRA II.

Where is Rijpfjorden?

Our field campaign takes place in Svalbard, an archipelago located between 76 and 81 N in the European Arctic at edge of the Arctic Ocean. Rijpfjorden is a north-facing fjord with a wide opening towards the broad shallow shelf (100–200 m deep), which extends to the shelf-break of the Polar Basin at approx. 81oN. For all of you not familiar with this region have a look at the map below.

map_2

Map of Arctic and Svalbard. Rijpfjorden will be our home for two weeks. (Figure: M.Daase)

A very simple field station is situated in Rijpfjorden consisting of a small wooden hut (“Bjørnehiet”) build by polar bear researchers in the 1970s and a four square meter hut (“Sukkerbiten” =” Sugar cube”) and a container set out by UNIS in 2006 for the International Polar Year field campaign. Living conditions will be rather simple. Due to limited space in the helicopter that will fly us out, we will largely live of dry tech (and chocolate). We’ll have to be aware of polar bears passing by our camp and communication with the real world will be once a day via Iridium phone.

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Rijpfjorden field station February 2013 (photo: M.Daase)

20060901_0557

Bjørnehiet, Rijpfjorden field station, September 2006 (Photo: M.Daase)

The field campaign is organized by scientists from the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) which is located in Longyearbyen, the northernmost city in the world. (http://www.unis.no/)

You may wonder why are we going all the way to Rijpfjorden if we have a fjord right in front of Longyearbyen (or we also could just go a bit further north to Kongsfjorden and reside in Ny Ålesund, an international research station)?

Well, the “problem” with the fjords along the west coast of Svalbard is that these fjords are not very “Arctic” despite their high north location. Warm Atlantic water from the Gulf Stream is transported all the way to Svalbard and flows along the western coast of Svalbard keeping the waters here rather warm and the fjords are largely ice free even during winter. We are however interested in ice covered ecosystems. And that we find in Rijpfjorden where the influence of Atlantic water is less extenisive.

So why are we doing this field campaign and what are we actually doing?

To answer this question some background information on arctic marine ecology is needed:

We are interested in a copepod species called Calanus glacialis which is about 3-4 cm long and one of the larger copepod species in the Arctic. It is a key species in Arctic shelf seas, making up 70-80% of the available biomass in the water column, and an important food item for other zooplankton, fishes and birds.

C.finmarchicus CV11-small

Calanus glacialis (Photo: M.Daase)

To survive in the Arctic organism here have to be able to deal with a highly seasonal environment. Calanus glacialis is herbivorous, i.e. it eats microscopic algae (phytoplankton) produced in the water column or in the ice (ice algae). Algae can only grow if there is enough light and nutrients. Thus algae production is low during the polar night (autumn and winter) and as long as an ice cover prevents light from penetrating into the water column. Consequently the productive season is very short (from ice break up in late spring (May-June) to late summer (August)). Organisms need to adapt their life cycle in a way that they can deal with these constraints.

Calanus glacialis has evolved a number of adaptations to deal with the seasonal limitations in food availability: it accumulates large lipid reserves during the summer so it can survive long periods without food supply and overwinters in an inactive state at greater depth where it doesn’t waste any energy.

In ice covered sea two main blooming events happen in spring: as soon as enough light is available to penetrate through the ice algae start to grow within the ice and form an ice algae bloom. Later in the season when the ice breaks up a phytoplankton bloom occurs in the water column. Thus Calanus glacialis has two food source available in spring. While reproduction can be fuel with the energy stored in the lipids, C. glacialis also uses the energy provided by ice algae to produce eggs. By the time these eggs have developed to stages that can eat the phytoplankton bloom has set on and can thus be efficiently utilized for growth and development of the new generation. This is a very efficient way to make the best of the brief productive season. The general life cycle of Calanus glacialis in relation the two blooms is summarized in this figure.

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Conceptual life cycle of Calanus glacialis in the Arctic. (CI-CV: copepodite stages I-V; AF: adult female) (Figure: M.Daase)

There are a lot of unanswered question when it comes to the life history strategies of Calanus glacialis. We like to know more about how important the two blooms are for the reproductive success but also more about physiological process, enzyme activities, the lipid storage in particular during the polar night and spring.  Calanus glacialis is well adapted to an ice covered ecosystem. But what will happen if the ice disappears? Or if the ice breaks up earlier in the season, shortening the ice algae growth period and pushing the phytoplankton bloom ahead of time? Will Calanus glacialis be able to start reproduction earlier, will internal lipid stores be enough to compensate for the lost of the ice algae bloom? And how will increase water temperatures affect this cold water species?

Within CLEOPATRA II we combine field and laboratory investigations with model development to ultimately arrive at an improved understanding of C. glacialis adaptations to a warmer climate with less sea ice. We particularly focus on winter and early spring ecology which at present is poorly known. The main objective is to obtain a better knowledge of C. glacialis  physiology and life history strategies to predict the degree of match/mismatch of key biological processes at the base of the Arctic marine food web in a changing Arctic.

During the last year we have conducted monthly sampling in Billefjorden, a fjord closer to Longyearbyen (accessible with boat or snow scooter in day trips) to document the full annual cycle of Calanus glacialis. We also had the chance to visit Rijpfjorden last autumn, and this January and February. During the International Polar Year (2007-2008) a number of field campaigns were conducted in Rijpfjorden but we missed out on the main ice algae season (coming either to early or too late in the season).  So we go now in May in the hope to hit the ice algae bloom peak. Parallel to our field campaign similar samples will be taken in Billefjorden and Kongsfjorden so we can compare our observations over a wide spatial and environmental range

Details about our sampling program will follow in future blog entries, but briefly: we will work on the sea ice close to where a mooring is deployed in Rijpfjorden. Our sampling program consists of net hauls to sample the zooplankton community at different depth in the water column and we will bring live Calanus to our field-lab for different kind of measurements. We will take water samples and ice cores to measure chlorophyll and nutrient concentration, to analyse the algae species composition and for DNA analysis of micro organisms. And we will run some experiments on sites with and without ice cover.

Who is “We”?

The project is lead by UNIS with participation from the Norwegian Polar Institute.

Janne Søreide (UNIS) is the principle investigator of CLEOPATRA II and our fearless leader. She is in charge and the reason this whole field campaign is happening. Janne is a marine biologist, with over 15 years of experience doing fieldwork in the Arctic and a broad scientific background including plankton ecology, trophic biomarker, lipids biochemistry, sympagic-pelagic-benthic coupling, and much more. Janne was a Post Doc during the IPY project CLEOPATRA, the prequel to CLEOPATRA II.

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Janne Søreide taking ice cores, Billefjorde April 2013 (Photo: M.Daase)

Josef Wiktor joins us form the Institute of Oceanography, Polish Academy of Science (IOPAS). He is a specialist when it comes to phytoplankton and ice algae and due to many decades of experience conducting field work everywhere in the Arctic he is a very resourceful person to have in the field (i.e. he knows how to improvise when equipment is not working in the middle of nowhere).

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Josef Wiktor (Photo: Eva Leu)

Daniel Vogedes (UNIS, University of Tromsø) is a marine biologist with a background in plankton ecology and Calanus life history and >10 years of field experience from Svalbard. He is also heading the secretary of the ARCTOS network (http://www.arctosresearch.net/). Daniel is very handy to have around when it comes to deal with all kind of technical equipment. If it’s chargeable he can charge it, if it’s connectable to the internet he will have it online in no time. He also brings along his ROV so we can have a look what’s under the ice, and he is the technical person behind this blog.

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Daniel Vogedes and a WP2 net (Photo: M.Daase)

Malin Daase (Norwegian Polar Institute) is another marine biologist with a background in Calanus life history and with 15 years of experience from field work in Svalbard. She’s the “girl for everything”, and will also be in charge for the photo-documentation of this field campaign and later on for producing nice graphs of the data we’ll obtain.

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Malin Daase (Photo: M.Daase)

Miriam Marquardt (UNIS) is our youngest team member. She is a PhD student working with marine microorganism within the MicroFun project. She probably will spend most of the time in Rijpfjorden in the lab container filtering water.

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Miriam Marquardt (photo: M.Marquardt)

Einar Johansen joins us from the logistic section of the Norwegian Polar Institute. He is the only non-scientist in our team which probably makes him the most useful person. His main task is to get the two old snow mobiles going that are stored in Rijpfjorden and which are essential to get us and our equipment out to the sampling site. He is also in charge for camp safety, and being a professional cook it will be interesting to see if he can do any magic to dry tech. (sorry, no picture yet)

So, that’s it for the background information. We are busy packing and the plan is to fly out with the helicopter on 1st May and stay until 14th May.

We will try to keep this blog updated via Iridium, so it may not always work. But stay tuned to find out if the ice algae bloom has started, how many eggs Calanus is producing, how many liters of water Miriam will filter, if the snow mobiles are still alive, how deep the station is snowed in at our arrival, when the first bear will show up, and how soon we will get sick and tired of dry tech (Daniel probably never, Malin already after half a package during last weeks Billefjorden trip…).

MD

 

 

 

 

Link to weather data

Here you can find live weather provided by an UNIS weather station in our camp. The station is updating weather data automatically via Iridium satellite connection every six hours. On the page, click on the uppermost link (Met- and Permafrost data…). It should open a map, where you see the most recent weather data. You can click on the box with the Rijpfjorden data and a new page will open where can browse the weather data in detail.

Have fun, and think of us when you are enjoying your coffee in 20 C in under the warm spring sun 🙂

http://www.unis.no/20_RESEARCH/2060_Online_Env_Data/weatherstations.htm

An unexpected guest

We are still recovering from our Billefjorden excursion (i.e. slept for 12 hours and then spend the afternoon in the cooling room to treat our samples), so here just a little impression from our sampling yesterday: while towing our nets an unexpected guest showed up in our hole 🙂

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Stuart towing the plankton net in Billefjorden, 26.4.2013 (Photo: Malin Daase)

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a curious ring seal showed up to see what we are doing with such a lovely hole in the ice (Photo: Malin Daase)

 

Billefjorden – some quick results

After quite an exhausting second day of fieldwork in Billefjorden, with more samples and an ROV mission, we returned in fairly white conditions to Longyearbyen, arriving at around 22:00 on Friday. But it was worth the hassle, lots of samples have been taken and we even have some video for you. We used a mini-ROV to pull a rope 50 m under the ice, which we then used to take horizontal plankton samples under the ice. The ROV video gives a good impression of the massive amount of ice algae, their patchy distribution, and our copepod friends being busy chewing on the good stuff. Not much time for video editing, therefore it turned out a bit lengthy:

Even though half of Longyeabyen seems to think that the sea ice is rapidly melting, our CTD plot and our ice cores show that this is not the case. We will prove this as soon as we have the data plots ready, stay tuned for real-time update of exiting scientific results!

On the road! First stop: Billefjorden, testing equimpment

Finally! The Rijpfjorden 2013 campaign blog has started – with a trip to Billefjorden! Here we are – writing our first blog entry, to be delivered by insanely expensive satellite connection in a couple of minutes.
But let’s start at the beginning – how did we get here? It’s of course Calanus – the most beautiful, fatty and important animal genus in the Arctic (sorry Polar Bear…). You will for sure hear more about it (Calanus, not Polar Bears) later. As a little warming up for the Rijpfjorden campaign, we went to Billefjorden to test some equipment and continue our 12 year long time series of zooplankton sampling. Getting is usually not a problem, crossing 2 glaciers and 2 fjords, however eventually spring arrived in the Arctic, with some interesting consequences for the state of water – which we prefer to show you in an illustration, so have a look at the picture gallery and see for yourself 🙂
Eventually we arrived safely in Billefjorden/Adolfbukta and did some sampling (see gallery) and do some relaxing and blogging now. Tomorrow more sampling is on the agenda. And maybe some sleep would be nice as well.

Sooo, follow this fantastic blog and see what we are up to when go further North in a couple of days…

CLEOPATRA II – Objective and background

Summarized in a few words, the objective of CLEOPATRA (CLimate Effects On PlAnktonic food quality and trophic TRAnsfer in the Arctic marginal ice zone) is to obtain a better knowledge of Arctic zooplankton physiology and life history strategies to predict the degree of match/mismatch of key biological processes at the base of the Arctic marine food web in a changing Arctic.

You can download PDF of the official CLEOPATRA 2 poster here:

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